The papers below describe the Seventeenth Path of Zain that symbolises the infleunces between Binah and Tiphareth across the Abyss. (More to follow)...
(Updated 08 January 2021)
The Lovers - Path No. 17
By Doreen Sturzaker
The next Path I would alike to consider is the Lovers, running between Binah and Tiphareth. In the Archetypal World you would expect to find the harmony and balance of Tiphareth blending into a true understanding. It is a Path of balance and choice all the way. Perhaps a better word is discrimination.
In the World of Atziluth the colour is Orange, it shows organising ability and self-control, there is great understanding, sensibility and receptivity. There is an acute discrimination. Orange helps to establish happy co-operation between self and sub-consciousness. Self-consciousness is the framer of suggestion; by dropping seed thoughts into the sub-conscious mind the pattern of things can be changed for the better. Orange, too, is the Ray of the concrete mind, our everyday, analytical mind so there is analysis as well as synthesis met with on this Path. All these qualities are what the individual who is treading this Path is aiming for.
In the World of Briah there is a humility and sensitiveness in the Wisdom. One end of the Path lies Binah with great understanding and the other end has Tiphareth with its vision of the harmony of things and clear-sighted spiritual vision.
There is a deep understanding. This is a high Path on the Tree and the colour in Briah is pale Mauve which denotes aspirational tendencies. We can make contact with the super-consciousness via our sub-conscious ideas which are under the direction of the self-consciously functioning individual.
Coming to Yetzirah the colour is a Brownish Yellow, usually signifying discontent, perhaps here it would be more what is called a divine discontent. Now Binah has close links with the Holy Guardian Angel. I know this is considered to be the spiritual experience of Malkuth, but the two titles of these Spheres show their close connection. Binah is the Superior Mother and Malkuth is known as the Inferior Mother. This Higher Guardian Angel aspect of Binah may be likened to that part of an individual which shows him the real purpose of his Manifestation, that is, his true purpose in the vast scheme of things, so at an early stage along this Path the man may glimpse a part of the Plan as it affects him and he will try to see more or possibly want to hasten along. He becomes discontented with his, what may seem to him, slow rate of progress. The aspect of the Brown Ray, which can give depression, may affect him here on the emotional levels of Yetzirah, but to counter-balance this there is also the mental activity of the Yellow, the inspiration to carry him on along the Path which is one of separation essentially; the separation of the part of the Self in Manifestation from that which is not.
In the World of Assiah we have the colours Reddish-grey inclined to Mauve. What does this tell us? Well Grey at this level even in the physical World shows a struggle of the soul for freedom, idealism, the individual is striving to make a link with the Higher Self, probably has done so, an therefore has the vision, the aspirational tendencies of the Mauve accentuate and underline this while the tinge of Red gives the energy and impetus to overcome the loneliness and emptiness of separation which can be experienced on it. It gives the will to do and enables it to accept the fact of the separation from the higher Self. To recognize that it was necessary for individual evolution.
One of the magical images of Binah is the Vision of Sorrow which is really the realisation of all that the individual Spark would have to go through as a separate Entity and the Red gives the strength and the willpower to continue, an enthusiasm to carry on despite all obstacles, because in the long run that is all there is to do.
The Path of the Lovers
By Peter Oddey (2001)
The path, to which is ascribed the Tarot card of The Lovers, adjoins the world of Binah and the world of Tiphareth. To it is ascribed the Hebrew letter Zain, which means a sword or armour and it is deemed by the Sepher Yetzirah a simple letter meaning smell, to which is ascribed the sign Gemini the Twins. The Esoteric Title for the Key is, “The Children of the Voice, the Oracle of the Mighty Gods”.
This profusion of meaning attaching to the seventeenth path is an indicator of the complexity and profundity of mystery attaching to its interpretation, about which many eminent Qabbalists agree is one of the more difficult.
In some way and in the most general terms, the path of The Lovers, is the means of mankind’s evolution from caveman to god, or reinstatement to primal felicity in the Garden of Eden, whichever view one prefers. There are aspects to the path of the most elevated, but also of the most basic kind.
The concept of the Sword, its power to cleave and separate, to act in vengeance or defence is fundamental to the path. Indeed, we find reference to the sword, or to an instrument that is able to cut or carve, at many significant Scriptural junctures:
Genesis 1:1 - ‘In the beginning, God created the Heavens and the Earth.” Here, we understand, the word created could also be translated carve or separate out.
Genesis 3:24 - “He banished the man and in front of the Garden of Eden he posted the great winged creatures and the fiery flashing sword, to guard the way the Tree of Life.” Here we understand that it is the path itself that acts as a guard to the Tree of Life. The Greek Orthodox tradition for its funeral liturgy states that ‘death came into the world, that the evil of man may not endure forever’. The indication is that our progress into the higher realms of the Tree is guarded and allowed, according to strict criteria of acceptance.
Sepher Yetzirah 1:1 - “In two and thirty most occult and wonderful Paths of Wisdom, did YAH the Lord of Hosts, engrave His Name.” Here again, the idea of carving out, separating and distinguishing, is the primary intention and accords well with Scripture from Genesis, quoted above.
Matthew 10:34 - “Do not suppose that I have come to bring peace to the earth; it is not peace I have come to bring but a sword.” Once again, the coming of The Christ into the world forces a separation and a distinction between those who do and those who do not accept His Word.
The symbol of the sword is pervasive throughout the Kabbalah, as indeed it is throughout Alchemical symbolism. No doubt the fact that an entire Tarot suit is designated Swords and presides over the formative world of Yetzirah, in the four Worlds of Emanation, is at least mystically, if not deliberately fortuitous. It is, perhaps, the Queen of Swords, seated upon the Throne of Binah at the top of the seventeenth path, that gives the most graphic depiction of how the card and the path may be viewed. In the Golden Dawn and Thoth versions, the Queen, brandishing a sword in one hand and a newly severed head in the other, seems to suggest that she holds the key to transcending earthly thought and concept. We need to bear in mind that if we are to evolve, we must radically dispense with our mundane thoughts and notions and that it is only through the application of our higher spiritual faculties, that we have the means of seeing through the world of illusion. As the Spirit of Prophecy speaking through Isaiah stated, “As high as the heavens are above the earth, so are My Thoughts above your thoughts.” (Isaiah 55:9).
Also the Three of Swords, assigned to the sephirah Binah, where the Waite card depicts a heart pierced by three swords, seems to imply that the transformation required for the ascent of the seventeenth path, is not simply intellectual but emotional, as well. Saturn, assigned to Binah, is both the Great Destroyer and the Great Initiator. The process may be viewed as either good or evil, depending upon viewpoint, but ideally, the path of The Lovers is the path from hardship to enlightenment.
The redolent associations continue in the sephirah Tiphareth. The Prince of Swords in divination may represent the coming or going of an event or person and the Six of Swords is titled the “Lord of Earned Success”, perhaps entailing sacrifice and suffering in the earning; all of which are sharply defining characteristics.
Perhaps something of the difficulty surrounding the Tarot card of The Lovers may be related to the development of the symbolism of the card itself. The Marseilles Tarot entitles the card The Lover, in the singular, and depicts a man accompanying two women, over the heads of which flies Cupid with a poised arrow. It would appear from the card that the man is having to make a choice as to which woman to pursue; Cupid’s arrow is clearly pointed towards the woman on the man’s left and the man appears to be justifying his decision to the other woman. In other words, on this path, decisions have to be taken and sacrifices made. Later artists, perhaps confused by the number of figures, depicted the card as a couple only, with a uniting angel, but as with the card of the Hierophant, as depicted in the Marseilles and Waite decks, both cards speak of a union of duality in the approach of the divine. In the same way that on the downward path from Binah, the unified form of Binah is separated into two opposites, or a duality; so on the upward path from Tiphareth, the duality must be reunited, before re-entering the Godhead.
In this sense, the Thoth card, depicting a marriage of the black king and white queen is particularly appropriate. The Golden Dawn card emphasising the higher life in triumph over the baser, offers another layer of meaning.
Finally, the profound links for this path are to be found in the Yetziratic text of the “Thirty-two Paths of Wisdom”:
“The seventeenth path is the Disposing Intelligence, which provides faith to the Righteous, and they are clothed with the Holy Spirit by it, and it is called the Foundation of Excellence in the state of higher things.”
The link here is with Binah, which is, “The Sanctifying Intelligence and is the basis of foundation of Primordial Wisdom, which is called the former of faith and its roots, Amen; and it is the parent of faith from who’s virtue doth Faith emanate”.
This links us to world of Yesod, the Foundation, which is, “The Ninth path. The Pure Intelligence so called because it purifies the numerations.......”
All this tells us that the ascent of the seventeenth path is achieved by purity as a foundation and faith as a goal.
The Path of the Lovers
By Vipin Prithipaul (2000)
The Lovers is the 6th arcanum and the 17th path on the Tree of Life. The Hebrew letter Zayin, meaning sword, is assigned to this path which joins Binah to Tiphareth. The path of Zayin thus runs from the negative pillar to the middle pillar of equilibrium (on the journey down the Tree).
Most arcanums show an angelic female figure looking down at a man and a woman. The man faces the woman who in turn looks up at the angelic figure. (The man is on the right side of the card and the woman is on the left hand side, whereas the angelic figure is in the centre towering above the latter two figures). These three figures symbolise MAN or rather the “psychological” or inner nature of man that is the self depicted by the woman, the lower self depicted by the man and the higher self depicted by the angelic figure.
The self is the conscious that judges and plans, the one that adapts to the environment in which the physical body lives. In fact it is Mr. and Mrs. everybody going out working, meeting people, socialising, etc. To be brief the self is the consciousness receiving external stimuli and coping with them. The lower self is where resides the instincts - it is the “animalistic” part of man. In this realm the senses are rulers and they do influence the self in various ways - hunger, anger, etc... The higher self is above the two above mentioned, it is the eternal self, the part closer to the One. Though all three aspects form part of a woman the self and the lower self are not eternal as they are symbiotic with the physical body, on the other hand the higher self is independent and eternal - the divine spark if I may say so.
Having tried to define the three aspects of the human nature, I feel that the gender of the figures causes a problem. According to the Tao “The whole universe is permeated by two principles, one masculine or positive and the other feminine or negative - Yang and Yin”. Some psychological authorities state that “man is psychologically bisexual, a combination of both masculine and feminine elements”. However, in view of the above I wish to quote Israel Regardie who says, “That the being which is active physically is passive spiritually and vice versa.” Thus shedding some light on the interpretation of the gender depicted on the arcanum.
Behind the man is a tree which according to Paul Foster Case bears “twelve fiery fruits representing the signs of the zodiac.” - Knowing little of astrology, I think that the tree represents the macrocosm and the man the microcosm - a miniature version of the greater universe which he has not yet “realised”. Behind the woman is a tree bearing five fruits, on the trunk of which is entwined a serpent. It makes me think of Eve in the garden of Eden being tempted by the “Evil Snake” - Lucifer. The five fruits may symbolise the five senses, the woman the Self being drawn ‘down’ to the material by the serpent - The divine spark being tempted to engross into matter. On the other hand if the Self (woman) being rational and able to make choices - then what I mean is that though the five fruits represent the five senses and the woman the Self and that the serpent is dual in nature - depending on what we wish to be tempted by: the snake (or serpent) is a symbol of duality as we logically associate it with evil according to some faiths and practices but on the other hand as it sheds its skin regularly it also symbolises resurrection.
At this point in the arcanum the serpent is the mediator between the higher self fighting with the lower self and symbolically either the Self sheds its skins and unites with the One or it may cloak itself in material shells and be guided by its “newly” acquired tactile stimuli readily heightened by the five senses - so we see that the serpent is really tempting the Self in one way or another. (The Fool getting cloaked into matter going down the Tree or shedding its skins going up!)
The two trees represent the two pillars, or the positive and negative aspects of all creation and the same applies to us!
(Swinging from one pole to another.)
Gemini, the Twins, is assigned to this path - our tradition makes Zeus the father of Castor and Pollux but what is interesting is another tradition which makes Leda the mother of both Castor and Pollux but Zeus being the father of Pollux and Tyndare (the husband of Leda) the father of Castor - we might conclude that Castor and Pollux are twin sons of different fathers - one divine and the other mortal, just like the two fighters who live within us.
We are the product of the divine spark ensouled into matter - on one side the Original Fool emanating from the divine and on the other side the gross Fool trapped in flesh and guided by it’s senses. The fool that we are is thus perpetually in conflict, swinging from the pillar of mercy to that of severity, but most of the time attracted to material riches, quenching its materialistic thirst and cravings, pleasing its animalistic pleasures and needs, while the divine Fool aspires to go back and unite itself with the One. This is a path of sacrifice as it takes time, perseverance, wisdom and will-power to raise the spiritually fallen fighter, for most of us usually are dominated by the material fighter.
The path of Zayin is one of conflict and choice. Mr. Sturzaker rightly states that “physical riches can make a spiritual pauper...” and vice versa. On this path the Fool has only one choice and depending on that choice one may go up or go down the Tree to engross oneself with more matter. The choice symbolism can or is related to the Hebrew letter Zayin, meaning sword. The sword is a symbol of threat, it cleaves and cuts unlike Vau, the nail, which unites - the sword is a double edged weapon in the sense that it can be used to kill, harm and cut to pieces or it can be used to defend, save and still cut to free.
This is a path on which the Fool holding a sword can either use his weapon to defend himself or use it (badly) to hurt himself....the final choice remains his!
By Barbara M. Croucher (1980)
What are ideal qualities for all lovers? Surely mutual understanding and loving sacrifice for the partner, with no pretence.
No wonder this Path joins Tiphareth and Binah, bringing together the sacrifice of the gods, the greatest understanding of the Great Mother and the chance for the querent to choose to be the same, whether he stands in darkness or in light. He is now on the Path of Zain, the sword, which protects him from the wrong choice, as for his benefit it makes a clear separation between things good and evil.
Tiphareth in Assiah shows the connection between the psychological and physical body, so this can be a psychosomatic path across the abyss now that peace and harmony have been established between the low and middle self.
Just as the central nervous system watches for signals from the body to be passed to the brain and trigger off the appropriate reflexes, so the woman is looking to the man for protection. In the same way he, the will, can influence the subconscious and with gentle reiterated assertion and repetition can make what was once a task - or even a miraculous impossibility - a fact achieved without effort, almost unconsciously. Only efficient action is necessary without any trimmings or deceit - hence the naked figures.
Gemini, the astrological sign, reminds us of twins - two aspects of a single cell, so difficult to know apart. Also, as we have seen, it is the path of the sword which divides and produces duality. The right to choose which Jesus said he brought us ("I come not to bring peace, but a sword").
But what DO I choose? I sometimes cannot tell right from wrong, and even more difficult, cannot tell which right is the best. Which is the way that leads to the black of Binah? Which is the way that leads me to the Light? How am I to know?
The sense of smell is linked with this path, implying choice and discernment. This is ever before us - "What to think? What to say? What to do? What a red-letter day if we knew!" The serpent of temptation never ceases to produce new problems as we climb up the tree of knowledge by means of vision and sense experience.
Subconscious mind with its subtle spiritual message inspires the conscious to see the end product of our desire or ideal vision. Tiphareth lies at the mid-point on the Middle Pillar between Malkuth and Kether - halfway between heaven and earth - we are aware of the materials, but with infinite possibilities of adapting this concept. Nevertheless, we remember that Apollo, the Sun god, was so bright in Tiphareth that many who looked on him were blinded and placed in darkness.
We are often in darkness about our true self and our true aims and desires. On this path, our consciousness sets off in the Light of Tiphareth to reach an understanding of the subconscious, often so dim and mysterious.
Tiphareth, or Beauty, is Truth. Hard facts are necessary for understanding to grow, because only with true knowledge of one another, will the conscious and subconscious become intimate and so produce a new birth.
Sometimes there is a glut of hard facts which instead of producing the restricting darkness of the womb of development, only give further confusion and delusion. So it is a Path of choice as regards facts as well. I must know when I have gathered enough data for my mental and spiritual hibernation.
How can we arrive at the right answers? Looking at the more usual card, a nude man and woman stand on either side of a small mount beneath the Archangel Raphael and the Sun, the man and the woman could be conscious and subconscious mind respectively, or the positive and negative pillars. These make a trinity with the Ain Soph Aur which pours down. The man looks to the woman who receives the light, or enlightenment from Divine Wisdom, and because of receiving renewed understanding from this, he is able to harmonise with circumstances and all types of personality and powers.
There is also an elemental trinity: the fire of the father, the water of the mother which appear separate, but are really two aspects of the ONE divided by the sword, bringing forth the son in Tiphareth. The clouds remind us that Raphael rules this airy Path.
The positive and negative stretch forth to each other, showing that by harmony between them, man will indeed be able to leap the abyss and climb up the mountain of the gods, shown in the background. Here they will give birth by means of the Divine Mother to the Son Tiphareth, of Beauty and Harmony, when he has reconciled the apparent opposites having faced true, unadorned reality, and made his choice to protect his views or cut them off forever with the sword of Zain.
By Carly Stevens (1984)
This 6th Arcanum and 17th Path, links Binah to Tiphareth; the negative pillar to the pillar of balance. The Hebrew letter attributed to this path is Zayin, which means sword, and the card of the Path usually shows a young man between two female figures driven to reach a decision, which will involve some form of sacrifice, there is also the figure of an angel overhead.
The Lovers shows the duality of manifest nature, and as such is strongly influenced by the Air element sign of Gemini; with the necessity to reconcile the dual nature of the twins, either in the self or as regards opposition from the outside. Either way the dividing symbol of a sword demands a sacrifice of some type before the balance and harmony, which Tiphareth brings to this Path, can be gained. The sword also shows a dual nature: the double edged sword out of the mouth of the son of man has one edge to condemn, one edge to save (Rev.1.16.); the sword is a magical/mystical weapon used for either good or evil, defence or destruction. It is also the symbol of the will and power of the Ain force.
The sword is matter taken from the Earth, then tempered and purified through fire and water, perhaps also a description of the soul being tempered for divinity. This Path links the Great Mother and the Son, or perhaps the Old Woman and the Child: the child can innocently take wrong turnings if he is not instructed or guided; perhaps why the packs show the angel, the guardian angel whose arrow again indicates air, representative of spirit and also of direction and ideals, and whose bow symbolises promise and eternal truth. There is guidance for the child, once he is prepared to begin his journey and to accept help: for the student who is ready there is a teacher or master.
The rays of the Sun which are seen represent the sphere of the universe and the paths of the Tree, also they indicate the bright security and warm promise of the Sun, an indication of gain which may be earned.
This is a path of choice, where decision must be reached and compromise can no longer be tolerated. It is the parting of the ways: the restriction of Binah and the sacrificial aspect of Tiphareth demand the sacrifice of the spiritual for the material or of the material for the spiritual. The right choice leads to the level of Binah consciousness, where limitations are either gained or shed, the wrong choice will cause a fall back down below Tiphareth. This is solely the choice of the individual and his decision is already defined by his inherent characteristics by what he has made of himself; "So shall thy judgement be, thou thyself has decided it." A momentous decision over-shadowed by the sword of Damocles and one which shows the nature of the student: whether to live and die by the sword or to turn the swords into ploughshares; again the double-edged decision. The lovers appears to be a testing ground of incredible difficulty, but in reality there is no choice to be made, the student has already decided, all his previous thoughts and actions have formed his nature, and this pre-ordains which Path he will take, for at this level he can only be true to what he has made himself to be.
The gods of this Path are mostly twin deities, such as Castor and Pollux, one of whose functions is to test the hospitality given to strangers. Apollo also represents this Path, his functions reveal divergences which are often contradictory. He uses bow and arrow and is a god of both sudden death and healing: he is also a god of divination and prophecy, one of the magical powers of this Path - the other is the ability to be in two places simultaneously, reflecting the Geminian multiplicity.
The swords of both Arthur and Siegfried are attributed to this Path. Arthur lost the scabbard to Excalibur. Tradition says that had he not done so he would never have been wounded. The inference is that the male symbol of the sword was separated from the female symbol of scabbard - the separation of anima and animus, or lack of integration of the two halves of the self. The correct use of the sword is one of the lessons of this Path.
The magical weapon of the Path is the tripod, the three legs are reminiscent of the three characters of the Arcanum, this is also the type of stool on which the priestess at Delphi would sit to deliver an oracle. The appropriate gems are tourmaline, a black mineral, and alexandrite, which is green and red. The plant is the orchid and the animal the magpie. Often featured in superstition, this bird is commonly taken as an omen and used to prophecy events. The drug is ergot, which is a disease affecting grasses, and the perfume wormwood, reputedly the plant which grew in the track left by the serpent when he was evicted from Eden, also a bitter tasting vermifuge.
The colour of this Path is the Orange Ray of the concrete mind, which, on a higher level, is the higher reaches of the mind: the Gemini influence is also mentally stimulating.
This Path is called ‘the Disposing Intelligence, which provides faith to the righteous and they are clothed with the Holy Spirit by it and it is called the Foundation of Excellence in the state of higher things’. The fate of the unrighteous is left to the imagination, but obviously the righteous are those who can control the heavy responsibility of the sword and use it wisely. Here the free will is perhaps exercised more than on some of the lower paths: the student is not so much answering the demands of an over-ruling destiny and karma, as following the destiny he has created by his own will and taking steps to create his own fate, which will involve the sacrifice of the ego. The essential quality for choice is discrimination, the recognition of greater and sacrifice of lesser.
At the level of Assiah the path is broad and perhaps less demanding: the colour is red grey, inclined to mauve, and the choice between pure materialism, or a material life with spiritual overtones. In the worlds of both Yetzirah and Assiah this is the final major initiation by air, in Briah it is the ultimate Air initiation. In Yetzirah the path is biased toward the mental stimulating yellow and the choice between emotional religion and logical belief of universal forces. In Briah the colour is a spiritual, pale mauve and here the Path is narrow, the choice is selective use of universal forces, through the powers developed.
One of the lessons of this Path is the man within the woman, the woman within the man. The reality of loving the self: that is, integration of the duality of the individual, before it is possible to love others. Then the level of Binah can be reached - the beginning and the end; the sword that parts and the girdle that binds; the Great Mother who can impart the understanding that all things are done.
Pathworking on the Lovers
By Malcolm Ballan (1996)
2) It is a beautiful summer's day - the sky is a radiant blue, the air is warm with a hint of a breeze upon which is carried the scent of wild flowers. You are standing at the base of a hill, its grassy slopes beckoning you up to a tree topped crown. There is a wondrous sense of joy, peace and contentment but something seems to call you up the hill. You espy a well worn path meandering up the slope. Taking the path you begin to ascend.
3) Part way up you stop to catch your breath and gaze out over the terrain - to other hills, vales and woodland, all shining with a vibrant green. Birdsong fills the air and you marvel at its beautiful sight.
4) You climb higher towards the crown - each step seems to draw you towards something waiting for you at the top. As you reach the brow of the hill you see before you a circular copse of trees. Bathe in the warm sunlight as you cross the hilltop and enter into the leafy glade. Here the birds are almost silent and the sunlight is only able to filter gradually through the thick foliage. You walk to the centre of the glade and first sit, then lie down beneath the green canopy.
5) Feeling very relaxed you just gaze up at the dark branches which seem to stand out against the golden green of the leaves - the branches look like paths meandering across a green landscape. You almost begin to doze, allowing your mind to wander aimlessly for a few minutes. Just enjoy the peace, warmth and relaxation.
6) Suddenly you hear a shout, and as you open your eyes you hear a thud as something is banged into the ground just by your side. You jump up to find a man and a women standing in front of you - the woman radiates a wondrous sense of peace and beauty and almost seems to glow with a golden light; the man however almost appears to scowl and looks as if he is far from happy. What surprises you the most is that these two are the spitting image of yourself - as if you were one of triplets. The woman bids you welcome to the glade while the man only looks on - she asks you to please forgive her brother's gloomy behaviour and then points to the sword that has been rammed into the ground inches from where you were lying.
7) "This sword is for your protection, should you want it", she tells us, "as we have far to travel before nightfall". We look at the sword and decide whether we will need it or not. She calls us to follow her towards two majestic trees - she murmurs a few words and then draws a pentagram in the air between the trees. The air shimmers and a golden light appears between the trees as if they are portals to a new world. We stand apprehensively before this portal - but the woman tells us not to be afraid and that they will be beside us when we enter beyond. She offers her arm which we take, and then to our surprise her brother takes our other arm and with a smile we walk beyond the veil.
(Spend a little time exploring beyond this doorway - your companions will remain at your side if you need them, and you will have your sword if you feel the need to use it).
8) You hear the woman say to you, "Come, you must return". You awaken to find yourself lying on the hilltop and wonder if it has all been a dream. But as you go to stand up your fingers touch cold metal, and there at your side is the sword. Again you have the choice - to take it or not. You leave the woodland copse and begin the journey back down the hill - as you reach the bottom so your thoughts return back to your room and you awaken.
To be continued...